Статья в зарубежном сборнике «Эффективные инструменты современных наук» — 2014

Автор: Елена Багнюкова Опубликовано: 16.11.2014 Рубрика: Это интересно |

Psychotherapeutic approach in teaching foreign languages

 

Modern man’s life is unthinkable without intensive intercultural communication, both in the professional field as well as in the field of leisure, so the issues of foreign language teaching are relevant today as ever. The search for effective methods of language teaching is an important task as lingua-pedagogy and psychology — approaches to learning have always been based, and will be based on the actual time for your understanding of the principles of personal development and functioning of the mental processes.

The earliest practice in language teaching, but still applicable conversion methods (in particular, grammar-translation and textually — translation method) back to the associative approach in psychology with its characteristic notions of associative memory (G. Ebbinghaus , G. Muller and etc.). Translation is the basic method of establishing associations between the words of foreign and native language. Since the beginning of the spread in the 1920s behavioral approach in psychology (Watson, Thorndike, Skinner, etc.) we are beginning to understand how verbal behavior. New methods of teaching foreign languages are appeared. Instead translation start using visual- shaped (visual or auditory) presentation of the object or phenomenon to establish a direct link between the foreign word and this word signified object (phenomenon). In Soviet psychology at this time developed a general theory of activity and its partial application such as the theory of mental and mnemonic activity (Vygotsky, S. Rubinstein, Leontiev, Zinchenko, etc.). Great attention to thinking, comprehension , understanding in human cognitive activity is reflected in the understanding of the goals of teaching foreign languages ​​- are beginning to talk about learning a foreign language speech activity itself as a method of forming and formulating thoughts through language. Thus, there is activity-based approach to teaching foreign languages ​​in such forms as the personality and activity, communicative and activity, system activity and other teaching methods. In the west interest human thought processes executed in the 1950s in the cognitive approach in psychology (J. Kelly, L. Festinger, A. Beck, etc.). Influenced by research psychologists develop the cognitive problem-based learning and communicative teaching method, investigated and classified strategy of learning a foreign language. So, M. O’Malley revealed 24 strategies, highlighting the direct cognitive strategies directly related to handling training material (repetition, grouping, deduction, note taking, memorizing key words, etc.), and strategies mediated learning, in two varieties: 1) metacognitive strategies (pre-planning exercises, awareness of the learning process, evaluation of results, etc.) and 2) social-affective strategies aimed at cooperation in the learning process, including clarification of unknown material (asked, paraphrasing, examples, etc.). The latter group is due to the development strategies of a new trend in education — its humanization associated with developed in the 1950s and 60s Rogers and Maslow’s humanistic theory of personality. According to Rogers, the training is intended to be an alternative therapy in addressing the challenges inherent disclosure of personal potential and self-actualization. Basic principles of humanistic education: individual creativity, choice of educational objectives and discussion of topics related to the world of personal disciples — were readily accepted by trainers and teachers of foreign languages ​​. By humanistic language teaching methods traditionally include teaching community (C. Curran) method, relying on physical action (J. Asher) and suggestopedia (Lausanne). We will not cover everything, but some of them — deserve our special attention. They can be attributed to psychotherapeutic approach in training, because they not only include psychotherapeutic tasks, but also use psychotherapeutic agents’ solutions of educational problems. Dwell on them a bit more.

  1. Learning Community (Community Language Learning, CLL) American counselor and teacher Charles Curran (Charles Curran) saw similarities in language teaching with the process of counseling : an important educational and therapeutic factor is the group interaction : students in a circle to discuss what they interesting. Teacher participates in conversation, offering students their equivalents phrases in a foreign language. Students play a leading role in organizing and building the course: instead of beforehand made courses they spontaneously choose their interesting subject and language tools as well as at their own pace and learning mode. Personally meaningful learning experience coupled with verbal material — in the end, each student masters a foreign language it is in the version that is needed to him personally.
  2. Suggestopediya (Suggestopedia) Suggestopedical method Bulgarian psychotherapist G. Lozanov » based on communicative methods of psychotherapy by means of art and methods of other disciplines of psychotherapy , following psychological and physiological laws defining the process of releasing the potential of the individual» and reaches psychotherapy and psycho-hygiene effect due which , according to the author of the method , a foreign language can be learned in two — five times faster than traditional methods. Suggestopedic learning is based on three basic principles: 1) the principle of joy and tension; 2) the principle of unity of conscious and subconscious, 3) principle suggestive relationship, attention to feedback about mastering the material and students based on their individual abilities. G. Lozanov initiated a number of intensive methods of teaching foreign languages ​, among which the most interesting in the light of our topic is the method ‘s domestic by I.M. Rumyantseva.
  3. Transactional analysis in teaching foreign languages ​​Transactional Analyst Judy Churchill (Judy Churchill) successfully uses transactional analysis training in communication skills , as well as learning foreign languages. It relies on the position of Eric Berne that the effectiveness of communication and the native and foreign language affects ego state communication partners (Parent, Adult or Child). Particular attention is paid J. Churchill ego of participants learning — traditional parent state teacher and child state students, in her opinion, are ineffective because students disclaim responsibility for the learning process. Using transactional analysis it helps my students to learn the most effective academic communication «Adult — Adult», activating them in their own motivation for effective learning and change. Of humanistic psychology J. Churchill borrows the concept of empathic listening, teaching communication skills training to listen to yourself be heard.

Perhaps this short list lingua-pedagogical method, which we call psychotherapy by no means exhaustive, but it, gives us an idea about the availability of interest around the world to bring the two methods of personal development — education and psychotherapy. Do not expect that psychotherapeutic methods of language teaching will become a mass phenomenon — at least because such training requires teachers’ not only linguistic knowledge, but also whether they are psychological skills. However, for those professionals whose professional education includes comprehensive training, both in psychology and in the field of foreign language teaching languages ​​based psychotherapeutic approach may be a promising area of professional activity.

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