Статья в зарубежном сборнике «Образование и наука 21 века — 2013»

Автор: Елена Багнюкова Опубликовано: 22.12.2013 Рубрика: Это интересно |

Psychology of learning a foreign language

Surely everyone to learn a foreign language at least once wondered: «Why is it so hard to do it»?

Any activity, including speech, psychologically is arranged in the same way. Then why do we speak a foreign language harder than in native language? First, to build a statement, the carriers of different languages ​​have to do a number of operations: an analysis of the situation, objectives, terms of verbal communication, etc. Second, different languages differ ​​by operations that speaker must be done to build the statement with the same content and the same direction. It is impossible to capture these operations only by imitation: that we do not notice how, in practice, use both. And here we come to the main question: is there a dominant or a more efficient way? There are two main approaches to the study foreign languages ​​- traditional (based on imitation) and activity (method of activity).

Today the method of activity is preferred in the educational system. The key concept of this approach is speech skill. To form it is to ensure that the student can properly construct and implement a statement. But for the full communication needs us to, first, know how to use the language skills to express their own thoughts, intentions, and feelings, otherwise the speech activity is only partially formed. It is also necessary so that we can arbitrarily select the combination or intentionally voice operations depending on the purpose for which, in any situation, which occurs communication interlocutor.

So, the transition from the native speech to speech in a foreign language is the transition from program to implement it. This change, of course, cannot happen right away once and for all people at once cannot speak a new language. He has to go through a stage of indirect knowledge of a foreign language; mediating link here is the «native» system of rules, that is, our Russian speech. Some desperate people stopped at this stage, and then we talk about them, that they speak Russian- foreign language, that is to say a few words of the native language, without translation into a foreign application of the rules of grammar. However, you must establish a direct connection between the curriculum and the rules of a foreign language that will meet the full respect of his mastery. In the words of the famous psychologist BV Belyaeva, that’s when people start to think in a foreign language. We are not in possession of a foreign language, as long as we do not learn to think on it?

Whether we like it or not, the psychological model involves an analogy between the native and foreign language. It would be wrong to say that a foreign language to learn a foreign language. Yes, the result would surely be. However, it will remain at the level of standard and simple expression of a series of «Hello», «How are you», «My name is Anna», «I like your house», «I have a family of five people», etc. Typically, this is satisfied with few resulting — at least for a long period of time. The fundamental, thoughtful and informed study of a foreign language requires a long time to linger on the stage analogy. Naturally step strategy is followed by it, which understands the laws of a foreign language.

Language teachers and psychologists have known that during the development of a foreign language often there is such a thing as a psychological barrier. The lack of vocabulary, inability to express their thoughts, fear of mistakes — it covers all the way to free communication in any foreign language — English, French, Croatian or any other. Ways to overcome the psychological barrier are known quite a lot.

Practicing psychologists argue that the main cause of the language barrier is a bad first experience. In 99 % of cases it is the experience of schooling. Incorrect technique Russian schools give rise to uncertainty and reluctance to speak in English (German, French, and Croatian) language. Moreover, after this kind of fears acquired in school, many persons drop out at all to learn a foreign language. Find out in this situation alone is almost impossible. In order to cope with the language barrier should consult a linguistic psychologist or lessons with a qualified teacher. An excellent opportunity to remove the fear of communication will be English spoken on Skype, as the free conversation that is conducted with native speakers cannot hurry to choose words without thinking about what you appreciate, without fear of ridicule or illiterate.

As a rule, those who cannot speak a foreign language, even in the course of training on the communicative method, they create barriers for themselves. They are careful to teach grammar, writing words on cards and notebooks, learn the rules. In this case, the language teachers have to change the stereotypes and instead of grammar to teach students to express themselves in a foreign language, trying to learn how to communicate your message to a friend. Do not be afraid to say something wrong. This is the communicative approach, which does not focus on memorization of words and sounds, and not on the passive acceptance of texts, and active use of the voice and the speed of live linguistic structures. Experience has shown that to overcome the language barrier can be formed in the presence of a motive to overcome it (the interest of the study, the desire to learn to speak) and resources (and building vocabulary, the ability to communicate in language).



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